When carotenoids breakdown they produce a range of degradation products but none is perhaps more important than beta-ionone. It is the principal breakdown product and is noted in the perfume industry especially because it has a  characteristic woody, violet, fruity, and raspberry‐like odor. The threshold value for this compound is only 0.007 ppb in water which is extremely low (Cremer & Eichner, 2000).


Lutein is one particular source but it occurs in all the carotenoid-rich fruits, plants and flowers. the principal sources are red pepper, tomatoes, carrots and even tea (Cremer & Eichner, 2000; Ziino et al., 2009).


It can be a major contributor to off-notes and off-flavours in various food products. dehydrated carrot, paprika, kimchi and some other fermented foods can be affected by too much of this compound. Fermentation of red pepper also leads to an overproduction of beta-ionone (Lee et al., 2018).


Cremer, D. R., & Eichner, K. (2000). Formation of volatile compounds during heating of spice paprika (Capsicum a nnuum) powderJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry48(6), pp. 24542460

Lee, S.M., lee, J.Y., Cho, Y.J., Kim, M.S., Kim, Y-S. (2018) Determination of volatiles and carotenoid degradation compounds in red pepper fermented by Lactobacillus parabuchneri. J. Food Sci

Ziino, M.Condurso, C.Romeo, V.Tripodi, G., & Verzera, A. (2009). Volatile compounds and capsaicinoid content of fresh hot peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) of different Calabrian varietiesJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture89(5), pp. 774780


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