Tyramine is the most commonly found in biogenic amine in food. It is produced by microorganisms in a range of foods by the decarboxylation of the amino-acid tyrosine. It is one of the most problematic compounds in food manufacture and its levels need to be controlled in a manner similar to histamine (Naila et al., 2010; Linares et al., 2013).
Sources Of Tyramine
Commonly found in fermented foods like cheese, fish sauces, soybean sauce, some wines and even beer (Alvarez & Moreno‐Arribas, 2014).
Symptoms Of Tyramine Poisoning
Tyramine was first identified in the 1960s as the agent causing the ‘cheese effect’ which was discovered by a British scientist trying to understand why his wife suffered severe headaches and migraines when she ate cheese even though she was on medication which inhibited the enzyme monoamine oxidase (Sathyanarayana Rao et al., 2009). Tyramine causes neurological disorders and headaches as well as hypertension and respiratory problems in those who consume foods high in this compound (Asatoor et al., 1963; Davies, 1963).
Tyramine is a biological hazard in foods and beverages according to both the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (EFSA 2011; FAO 2014). However, tyramine is not present in very fresh foods. It occurs and increases during storage of many foods due to microbial decarboxylation of tyrosine amino acid.
Traditionally, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) or florescence (FL) detector method was used to determine tyramine in different food products (Önal et al., 2013).
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