Aspergillus parasiticus

Aspergillus parasiticus is a significant fungal species within the genus Aspergillus. It is primarily known for its ability to produce aflatoxins, potent mycotoxins that pose serious health risks to humans and animals. This species is a critical concern in agriculture and food safety due to its ability to contaminate a wide range of crops, particularly those stored under improper conditions. Understanding Aspergillus parasiticus involves exploring its taxonomy, morphology, ecology, the conditions promoting its growth, and its impact on health and industry.

Taxonomy and Morphology

Aspergillus parasiticus belongs to the phylum Ascomycota, class Eurotiomycetes, order Eurotiales, and family Aspergillaceae. It is closely related to Aspergillus flavus, another significant aflatoxin producer. Differentiating between these species can be challenging due to their similar morphological characteristics.

Morphologically, A. parasiticus exhibits typical Aspergillus features. It forms conidiophores that are long, smooth, and bear vesicles at their tips. These vesicles support phialides, which produce conidia (asexual spores). The conidia are typically round, rough-walled, and greenish to yellow-green in color. Colonies of A. parasiticus can range from green to brown, depending on the specific strain and growth conditions.

Ecology and Growth Conditions

Aspergillus parasiticus is widely distributed in nature, commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and stored agricultural products. It thrives in warm and humid environments, making tropical and subtropical regions particularly vulnerable to its presence.

Optimal growth conditions for A. parasiticus include temperatures between 25-35°C and relative humidity levels above 80%. It can grow on a variety of substrates, including grains (corn, peanuts, and tree nuts), spices, and other crops. Moisture content in these substrates significantly influences fungal growth and aflatoxin production. Improper storage conditions, such as high humidity and warm temperatures, can exacerbate contamination risks.

Aflatoxin Production

The most notable characteristic of Aspergillus parasiticus is its ability to produce aflatoxins, a group of secondary metabolites that are highly toxic and carcinogenic. The major aflatoxins produced by A. parasiticus include aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. Among these, aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic and prevalent.

Aflatoxin production is influenced by several factors, including the substrate, environmental conditions, and the genetic makeup of the fungal strain. High temperatures and moisture levels typically enhance aflatoxin biosynthesis. Stress conditions, such as drought or insect damage to crops, can also increase susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin production. In food production, fungi such as Aspergillus are halted in their growth by the use of inhibitors such as sorbic acid. If these levels are not controlled properly unfortunately, aflatoxins begin to accumulate in the growth media (Yousef & Marth, 1981). The antibiotic nystatin can also control aflatoxin production to a limited extent (Yousef & Marth, 1984). The most effective treatments are diclorvos and Nα‐Palmitoyl‐L‐lysyl‐L‐lysine‐ethyl ester dihydrochloride (PLL) (Yousef & Marth, 1983). 

Impact on Health

Aflatoxins pose serious health risks to both humans and animals. Ingesting aflatoxin-contaminated food can lead to acute and chronic health issues. Acute aflatoxicosis, resulting from high doses of aflatoxin, can cause liver damage, hemorrhage, edema, and even death. Chronic exposure, even at lower levels, is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, immune suppression, and stunted growth in children.

Animals consuming aflatoxin-contaminated feed can also suffer from reduced productivity, immune suppression, liver damage, and reproductive issues. Aflatoxins can accumulate in animal tissues, and dairy cows, for example, can transfer aflatoxin M1, a metabolite of aflatoxin B1, into milk, posing additional health risks through dairy products.

Detection and Control

Detecting aflatoxin contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety. Various methods are employed for this purpose, including:

  • Chromatographic Techniques: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are commonly used for aflatoxin detection and quantification.
  • Immunoassays: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassays provide rapid and sensitive detection of aflatoxins.
  • Molecular Techniques: PCR-based methods can identify and quantify Aspergillus species and their toxin-producing genes.

Controlling A. parasiticus and aflatoxin contamination involves several strategies:

  • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP): Proper crop rotation, irrigation management, and timely harvesting can reduce the risk of fungal infection.
  • Post-Harvest Management: Proper drying, storage in low humidity conditions, and the use of fungicides can help prevent fungal growth and toxin production.
  • Biological Control: Using non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus to compete with toxigenic strains can reduce aflatoxin levels in crops.
  • Genetic Resistance: Breeding and genetically engineering crops for resistance to fungal infection and aflatoxin production is an ongoing area of research.

Industrial and Economic Impact

Aflatoxin contamination has significant economic implications. Contaminated crops lead to substantial losses for farmers and can affect entire agricultural sectors. Regulatory agencies worldwide, such as the FDA in the United States and EFSA in Europe, have established strict limits for aflatoxin levels in food and feed to protect public health and maintain market access.

Efforts to mitigate aflatoxin contamination involve considerable costs related to testing, monitoring, and implementing control measures. However, these efforts are essential to ensure the safety and quality of food products and to prevent health hazards associated with aflatoxin exposure.

Research and Future Directions

Research on Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin production is ongoing, with several key areas of focus:

  • Understanding Aflatoxin Biosynthesis: Detailed studies on the genetic and biochemical pathways involved in aflatoxin production can lead to new strategies for inhibition and control.
  • Developing Resistant Crop Varieties: Advances in biotechnology, such as CRISPR-Cas9, hold promise for developing crops with enhanced resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination.
  • Improving Detection Methods: Developing more rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective methods for detecting Aspergillus and aflatoxins is crucial for effective monitoring and control.
  • Biocontrol and Natural Antifungals: Exploring natural antifungal compounds and biocontrol agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination in crops is a promising area of research.


Aspergillus parasiticus is a significant fungal species with profound implications for food safety and public health due to its ability to produce aflatoxins. Understanding its taxonomy, morphology, ecology, and the conditions that promote its growth is essential for developing effective control strategies. Continued research and innovation in detection, control, and crop resistance are crucial for mitigating the risks associated with this potent mycotoxin producer. Through these efforts, it is possible to enhance food safety, protect public health, and minimize economic losses in the agricultural sector.


Yousef, A. E., & Marth, E. H. (1981). Growth and synthesis of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus in the presence of sorbic acid. Journal of Food Protection44(10), pp. 736-742.

Yousef, A. E., & Marth, E. H. (1983). Kinetics of aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus in the presence of Nα‐palmitoyl‐l‐lysyl‐l‐lysine‐ethyl ester dihydrochloride or dichlorvos. Biotechnology and Bioengineering25(3), pp. 671-685.

Yousef, A. E., & Marth, E. H. (1984). Kinetics of growth and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in the presence of butylated hydroxyanisole, isoprothiolane, and nystatin. Biotechnology and Bioengineering26(1), pp.6-11

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