Lettuce

Eating fresh lettuce straight from the garden can’t be beaten – it’s the key component of salad. The leaves are packed full of vitamins, especially vitamin A and C. The salad leaves have a long harvesting period and the thinnings can be eaten all year round. Remember to consider weather protection, in the form of cloches, when making early or late sowings.

Lettuce in a basket with Wellington boots, a trowel fork and trug for carrying lettuce.
Lettuce in a basket placed near a vegetable patch. Copyright: sanddebeautheil / 123RF Stock Photo

There are so many varieties available but a few are certainly recommended. We like ‘All The Year Round’.

Sowing

Seed for full grown plants are sown from February to the end of August in the United Kingdom. Until May, it’s best to sow in the greenhouse with some warmth. Only until the last frosts have gone is it worth sowing any outside. When growing outside, prepare the ground where these crops are to be grown and make sure all soil is watered.

Sow seed at a depth of 1.5cm, with a spacing of 25cm apart for rows. Seedlings will start to be visible in 7 to 14 days.  

Sowings made in the summer will have developed by spring the next year.

For baby leaf salads, the seed is best sown in pots or trays where accessability is key. Seeds should be spaced about an inch or 2 cm apart to avoid overcrowding. These are then covered with fine vermiculite, perlite or sieved compost but light is essential for germination, so only a slight layer is needed. Perlite and vermiculite are ideal as they keep the tiny leaves clean on germination.

When sowing inside, it is best to keep the seeds as cool as possible because germination is delayed, even reduced in heat until the weather cools. Seeds sown outside are best germinated in a reasonably sunny to semi-shaded spot. General fertiliser should be added including chicken and sheep manures pellets which should be raked in a week beforehand. Any early sowings are covered with cloches to protect from late frosts and cold snaps.

To have a regular crop available to harvest, you can carry out seed sowing every two or three weeks.

Growing On

Seedlings need to produce a few leaves before transplanting or thinning out to their final spacing which is about 10 in. (20-25 cm). These thinnings can be eaten but they can also be transplanted to different parts of the vegetable patch.

The rows need to be weeded regularly especially to reduce attack by slugs and snails lurking in the undergrowth. Watering is essential during spells of hot water and best done early or late in the day to avoid scorching in periods of sunny weather.

One alternative method for quick, reliable results is to buy a punnet of salad leaves from a supermarket and simply grown on !

Harvesting

Once the heads have grown to a certain size, they are best harvested otherwise they can bolt by producing flower heads. Any loose-leaf types are harvested whole or a few leaves can be picked from each plant as the head develops. Baby leaves are harvested by cutting the leaf with sharp scissors. The growing point must be carefully left alone otherwise the plant stops growing. It is possible to obtain two or three harvests.

Any plants growing in pots and trays should receive the occasional liquid feed such as that used for tomato fertiliser. This encourages them to produce further leaves once they are cut.

Lettuce Cultivars

All The Year Round – one of the best medium sized ‘butterhead’ types producing very large plants when given space. Compact and slow to bolt having a long season compared to other types. If you sow seeds from March to August, you can  harvest them from October to the following year’s April to May.

Bijou – typical red lettuce, strong growth and colourful.

Catalogna – a classic Italian oak-leaved variety available for whole head and baby leaf salads.

Lettuce variety Emocion.Emocion – purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Emocion here. A premium dark green coloured Batavian lettuce which is ideal for outdoor growing. This variety is compact and slow bolting and highly suitable to growing during Spring and Summer sowings.

 

 

 

 

Lettuce variety Frillice.Frillice – purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Frillice here. Best described as a Curly Iceberg, Lettuce Frillice is actually a Iceberg Lettuce / Endive cross. This variety is found in the supermarket prepacks, and although has a mild taste, it can also be suitable for soups and shredding into mixes.

 

 

 

 

Frisee De Beauregard – a beautiful, rather flamboyant lettuce and almost an ornamental.

Lettuce variety, Little Gem.Little Gem – a cross between a Cos and Romaine type which is ideal for braising as well as the salad bowl. Purchase seeds of cv. Little Gem here. Little Gem is very popular with amateur growers, and also a best seller in the supermarkets. It is a quick maturing, compact small cos type with tight hearts with a very sweet flavour.

 

 

 

 

Lettuce head of cultivar Lobjoits Green.Lobjoits Green Cos – one of the larger Cos types with large, sweet heads. Purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Lobjoits Green here.  Popular with amateur growers, it is still considered to be one of the best flavoured Cos varieties. Harvest until the end of June. 

 

 

 

 

Lettuce variety Lollo Rosso.Lollo Rosso – Purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Lollo Rosso here. An open leafed, non-hearting type with red tinged leaves and waved, serrated edges. Another popular lettuce with amateur growers as it is easy to grow.

 

 

 

 

Lettuce variety, Marvel Of Four Seasons. A red, curly leaved type.Marvel Of Four Seasons – a beautiful red-green type of lettuce with attractive curled leaves. Purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Marvel Of Four Seasons here. Produces good solid heads. Best results are obtained from spring and autumn sowing, but as the name suggests this variety will yield some excellent heads all year.

 

 

 

 

Lettuce variety, Moon Red.Moon Red – Purchase lettuce seeds of this little gem variety, cv. Moon Red. One of our favourites, Lettuce Moon Red is a little gem type lettuce with deep red outer leaves and a green heart. Growth wise it is slightly larger than Little Gem, but still compact with an upright habit.

 

 

 

 

Navarra – a small red lettuce.

Lettuce variety Red Salad Bowl.Red Salad Bowl – purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Red Salad Bowl here. Produces a large, fast growing rosette with long, brownish red deep cut leaves. Heat tolerant and great for growing as a cut and come again lettuce.

 

 

 

 

Lettuce variety Saladin. A full iceberg type.

Saladin – purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Saladin here. The variety is a regular iceberg lettuce variety, producing fairly dense, large dark green heads. The lettuce has very good holding ability. Comes highly recommended.

 

 

 

 

Lettuce variety Sebastiano.Sebastiano – purchase lettuce seeds of cv. Sebastiano here. A premium large red butterhead variety bred for growing outdoors. The leaves are slightly savoyed with a nice shiny gloss to them. Sebastiano is slow bolting and highly suitable for  summer harvesting.

 

 

 

 

Tom Thumb – a small hearted variety and one of the fastest to reach maturity.

Valdor – a butterhead type ideal for September planting.

Lettuce variety Webbs Wonderful.Webbs Wonderful – the classic ‘iceberg’ variety producing extremely large hearts. Purchase seeds of cv. Webbs Wonderful here. Generally, a large headed variety with frilly edged leaves. A popular iceberg variety amongst amateur gardeners as it is slow to bolt even in hot conditions. 

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