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Why FoodWrite Ltd ?

Welcome From FoodWrite !

FoodWrite Ltd. loves helping businesses achieve their market potential, make the best business decisions and improve their profits !

FoodWrite Ltd. provides consultancy on technologies and markets for the food and beverages industry, and in related industries such as personal care, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, resources, biochemical engineering and nutritional healthcare.  Food and nutrition ingredients, dietary and health supplements, and animal products are all core areas of expertise.

♦ FoodWrite Ltd writes web-content and has increased web-site rankings simply by providing high quality written material to support sales and marketing. It also offers SEO, website development in WordPress, PHP and Magento.

♦ FoodWrite Ltd brings together all the skills needed for creativity, entrepreneurship, innovation and quality of advice in helping businesses develop their strategies for growth.

It covers:-

– technical and business writing, and both scientific and commercial bid  proposals,

– patent writing, applications, support and appeal documents and interpretation,

– product marketing,

– consumer consultancy,

– costings and cost effectiveness on projects

– product concepts and development

– provides high quality technology analysis, updates, action plans and reports based on data and scientific literature.  

♦ It also offers technology scouting, identifying partners for collaboration, business and market development, and a B2B strategy for emerging technologies in food science and processing.

♦ It  provides product documentation and specification services coupled with technical market research to the food industry. White papers and marketing materials to support web-sites are a speciality and a number of clients use this service including the copyright more than any.

FoodWrite Ltd. helps a range of companies, from multinational manufacturers and suppliers, venture capital firms to research organisations and to smaller companies.  The consultancy draws upon great technical skills and knowledge coupled with management insight to provide a comprehensive service.

♦ We help customers realise their potential by providing support, expertise, support and advice to encourage best practice and continuous improvement. 

FoodWrite Ltd. started in 2011. Communication with the client is the heart of the service, ensuring we work closely to deliver all your milestones on time. You may be starting a food business or trying to understand the market place for a technology, please be confident that your project is managed professionally. Project proposals are generated ensuring all steps, their costs and timings are clear and transparent. The advice is high quality and tailored to your needs with progress updates provided as required. The knowledge has helped clients develop their intellectual property (IP), or otherwise supported their investment decisions in new markets or technology. 

♦ Checkout the case studies on this web-site.

♦ Give us a call or e-mail and use FoodWrite Ltd‘s experiences to open up new markets, meet the challenges you face and add value to your business.  Telephone consultancy is also available.  Our passion is to provide answers that can be actionable and to work closely with you

Lets transform your business at an affordable cost. If you are interested in other topics to be written about- just let me know !

Contact: 4, Bowens Hill, Coleford. Glocs. GL16 8DH  T: 01594 810704 M: 07714101039

Clients we work with include the European Commission, General Mills, GlaxoSmithKline, Lucozade Ribena Suntory (LRS), Riskaware, ThermoFisher Scientific, Sumitomo and Unilever.

 

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Some Changes To A Much Loved Food Prove Disastrous

Oh dear ! You’ve just spent lots of money and resources improving a much loved product. The product goes out to the consumer in a great fanfare – “Now its better” you say. The next you see are unpleasant, disappointed Twitter comments about how this much loved product has been mucked about with. It doesn’t look the same, doesn’t taste the same etc. etc. All that effort trying to meet what you thought your consumers wanted and it goes belly up ! All that money wasted and you are in a spiral trying to mollify your core customers.

Food disasters are very common especially when an iconic brand is altered, even tweaked. Consumers notice these things. Having been involved in product development for many years, I’ve personally witnessed what happens on social media when an ingredient is replaced or removed to meet the initial challenge. The change is made and suddenly it just doesn’t look right.

There are some classic cases out there and the list grows on. Colour is one of the worst to get right or wrong in the consumer’s mind. Artificial colours are often in the spotlight for safety and toxicity reasons. It seems a perfectly sensible idea to replace them with a colour that is natural, satisfies ‘green’ credentials, looks good and even better in the lab. It then gets launched and the product just doesn’t look right in the kitchen, bowl or glass. I don’t advocate going back to artificial colours but there is a case sometimes when the natural replacement doesn’t pass muster.

Natural colours are not easy to handle in a recipe but there are some great ones to choose from. Turmeric and marigold for yellow and orange, algal greens and blues (think of Spirulina), fruit and black carrot anthocyanins for reds and purples are some of the best naturals. However, finding suitable substitutes doesn’t always work in a formulation. Natural colours are not as robust as we would like in product development. It is the case that an alternative is simply not as good as it could be, in which case either don’t make the change or if you have to, find out just how big an impact it will have with the consumer.

At FoodWrite Ltd we are always on the look out for new natural colours and flavours for our customer’s products. Incidentally, early consumer research shouldn’t be ignored as the first step. You need to know if the change is needed in the first place and there are a host of activities to be conducted with clear business objectives.

The key product development action is always to look at how robust the colour is in a process for the food under consideration. Seems odd to say perhaps but if it looked an exact replacement before cooking and then turns a ghastly brown, well forget it as a replacement. Having established some early rules for the new ingredient in a product, deciding on the appropriate levels to add becomes the next step. It can be the case that the food before cooking or processing might not look as good as it did before the change. In this case we examine how critical these aspects are in sensory research. Each situation is dealt with on a case by case basis but there are some basic ground rules to be observed. Love to know your thoughts on this type of product development activity by the way !

Postscript:

If you want to know more about what we can do for you in product development, especially replacing ingredients then contact FoodWrite Ltd. We treat each example on a case by case basis as no situation is exactly the same.

 

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Liver Cancer Could Be Reduced By Drinking Coffee

  • Coffee drinking could have real benefits in reducing, even preventing liver cancer according to a new study.
  • Even drinking one cup of coffee could reduce the risk of developing liver cancer by 20%
  • Drinking 5 cups of coffee a day could prevent liver cancer by half is one conclusion.

Latest research suggests that liver cancer might be prevented by drinking coffee. There are some bold headlines out there which make extraordinary claims for coffee drinking including this one. However, a new overview of 26 studies covering 2.25 million people suggests that coffee drinking probably has some major benefits where reducing the incidence of liver cancer is concerned. It has already been shown in earlier research that coffee can reduce liver cirrhosis which is another extremely serious condition.

A group of friends making a toast with coffee.

Drinking at least one cup of coffee could help reduce the risk of developing liver cancer. Copyright: IKO / 123RF Stock Photo

Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. It is common in those of us with damaged livers, men and the incidence increases with age. Symptoms of any liver cancer include abdominal pain, easy bruising, jaundice and unexplained weight loss.

Researchers at the University of Southampton and the University of Edinburgh examined data from 26 studies which covered 2.25 million people. Comparing the data between coffee drinkers and non-coffee drinkers, they found that even if one cup of coffee was drunk, there was roughly a 20 per cent lower risk of developing HCC. The research is available in the open access section of the British Medical Journal.

The more cups of coffee drunk, the better the level of prevention ! If 2 cups of coffee were consumed, there was a 35 per cent reduced risk and if 5 cups were consumed, there was a 50 per cent reduction. Halving the risk of developing liver cancer is quite a statement and clearly the evidence and the reasons why bear further examination in future research.

Decaffeinated Coffee

Even drinking decaffeinated coffee had a benefit which indicates that compounds in coffee other than caffeine were beneficial. However, the researchers discovered the protective effect for decaffeinated coffee was “smaller and less certain than for caffeinated coffee”.

To quote from the study:-

“It may be important for developing coffee as a lifestyle intervention in chronic liver disease, as decaffeinated coffee might be more acceptable to those who do not drink coffee or who limit their coffee consumption because of caffeine-related symptoms.”

Conclusion

Dr Oliver Kennedy, who is the lead author of the study from the University of Southampton, has stated elsewhere: “Coffee is widely believed to possess a range of health benefits, and these latest findings suggest it could have a significant effect on liver cancer risk.”

He goes on to say that coffee drinking still has warnings associated with it and more research is needed to examine the harmful aspects. Pregnant women should not drink large quantities of coffee because of the caffeine content for example.

Professor Peter Hayes, of the University of Edinburgh, added: “We have shown that coffee reduces cirrhosis and also liver cancer in a dose-dependent manner.”

Postscript:

We have written earlier articles on the benefits of drinking coffee associated with a reduction in liver cirrhosis, colon cancer, prostate cancer,  multiple sclerosis and even atherosclerosis.

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Eating Peanuts Has Potential Benefits For Managing Diabetes And Improving Heart Health

  • Peanut consumption appears to lower risk factors affecting cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) along with diabetes are still one of the main causes of poor health globally. Diabetes in particular is a rising issue for developing societies. A study reported in the Journal Of Nutrition and supported by The Peanut Institute (USA) highlights the benefits of eating a large portion of peanuts in reducing certain risk factors. Blood lipid profiles are positively influenced and the functioning of blood vessels improved.

Peanuts on a white background.

Consuming peanuts helps manage diabetes and improve heart health. Copyright: cokemomo / 123RF Stock Photo

The study was small-scale. It was a randomized, controlled, intervention trial with 15 healthy but overweight or obese men. The subjects consumed two different shakes which were chocolate-flavoured and dairy-based. One contained 3-oz of ground peanuts per serve and the other had no peanuts. Each shake was consumed one week apart in a randomized order. They both had similar amounts of total fat and saturated fat, calories, protein and carbohydrates.

Lipids, lipoproteins including HDL and LDL cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were analysed in blood samples taken before and after consumption of the shake. The timings for the blood samples after consumption were 30, 60, 12, and 240 minutes generating a profile. Blood flow was also measured as an assessment of the integrity and functioning of blood vessels.

The study demonstrated that a reasonably large or chronic consumption of peanuts appeared to help improve blood flow. The researchers also noticed the rise in blood lipids which normally happens after consuming a meal was significantly lower than usual. It is reckoned that eating a portion of peanuts as part of a high-fat meal would help improve blood lipid levels as well as blood vessel functioning. The benefits in the long term are reducing cardiovascular disease and managing diabetes.

Reference

Access to the paper on The Peanut Institute. (Accessed 24th May, 2017).

Postscript: If you want to know more about the nutritional benefits of nuts check out this short review. We have also been looking at why walnuts are healthy for you too.

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Does Half A Glass Of Wine Really Increase The Risk Of Breast Cancer ?

A number of headlines in the UK papers have been screaming almost literally that even half a glass of wine increases the risk of breast cancer by nine per cent. What is apparent from the global evidence is that this true to a large extent. What also needs to be examined are the other risk factors and how they impact on the incidence of these cancers.

The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) routinely examines data from around the world examining the links between weight and obesity, diet, physical activity with breast cancer. The latest evidence comments on an already known truism that consumption of alcohol is a risk factor for this type of cancer.

Perhaps more specifically, drinking 10g of pure alcohol daily increases the risk of premenopausal breast cancer by 5% and postmenopausal breast cancer by 9%. The amount is roughly equivalent to a small glass of wine or beer a day. A standard drink is estimated to be 14 grams of alcohol.

In the UK, this was claimed by the NHS to be an extra case of cancer in every 100 women based on current rates in the United Kingdom.

The headline is quite lurid because the WCRF report also examines other factors which reduce the risks for example. Vigorous exercise such as running, gardening or mowing the lawn so as to be ‘out of breath’ are great examples to reduce the risk. Strong evidence confirmed earlier conclusions that moderate exercise decreases the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer, the most common type of breast cancer. The most active women can reduce their risk of pre-menopausal cancer by 17 per cent and for post-menopausal women , there is a 10 per cent lower risk compared to those who are the least active. Total moderate activity such as walking as well as gardening is linked to a 13 percent lower risk when comparing the most versus least active women.

Breast Cancer Statistics.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent in the USA for women, with an estimated 252,000 cases every year. It is felt that one in three breast cancer cases in the USA might be prevented if women exercised more regularly and more vigorously, kept their weight down, abstained from alcohol and ate more healthily.

Risk Factors For Breast Cancer

The risk factors for breast cancer are many and varied – doing physical exercise has already been mentioned as a way to reduce the risk. Age, especially as we get older, our weight, such as being overweight or obese, our family history for breast cancer which brings in a genetic element are other factors. What we eat also has a bearing as does hormone levels. Generally, a multi-factorial set of risks need to be considered.

The report ‘Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer’ (WCRF/AICR, 2017) was prepared by both the WCRF and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) from 119 research studies that covered 12 million women and 260,000 breast cancer cases. It helps nutritionists for example put risk factors associated with research into breast cancer into perspective.

Anne McTiernan, MD, PhD, the lead author of the report and a cancer prevention expert at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington State, USA stated “It can be confusing with single studies when the findings get swept back and forth.”

“With this comprehensive and up-to-date report the evidence is clear: Having a physically active lifestyle, maintaining a healthy weight throughout life and limiting alcohol—these are all steps women can take to lower their risk.”

One aspect that has to be considered is the general feeling of enjoyment and the reduction of stress when consuming alcohol as part of a strong social scene. Reducing the impact of mentally related stress factors impacts on brain and mental health too which are increasingly coming to the fore as we are able to live longer.

Diet And Breast Cancer

The report also assesses the links between diet and the risk of breast cancer. There is some limited evidence that non-starchy vegetables lower the risk for oestrogen-receptor (ER) negative breast cancers. The risk is also reduced by consumption of dairy products and diets which are rich in calcium and carotenoids. Typical foods high in all these nutrients include spinach, kale, apricots and carrots which are all known to be highly beneficial.

The lead author also stated:-

“The findings indicate that women may get some benefit from including more non-starchy vegetables with high variety, including foods that contain carotenoids.”

“That can also help avoid the common 1 to 2 pounds women are gaining every year, which is key for lowering cancer risk.”

Reference

WCRF/AICR (2017) Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer’. A Continuous Update Project. pp. 1-120

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Aniseed

Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) is full of sweet-shop memories but this powerful aromatic herb has been in  use for millenia, not just in foods for flavour but as a stomach calmer or digestif. It is a member of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family, which includes carrot, parsley, dill, fennel, coriander, cumin, and caraway.

History

Aniseed (anise) is a native of the eastern Mediterranean, especially Turkey and The Lebanon. It is probably one of the oldest known spice plants.  The Ancient Greek name ‘anison‘ and the Latin name ‘anisum‘ are derived from an even earlier Arabic name ‘anysum‘. It was found that anise or aniseed was used in Egypt as early as 1500 B.C.  The Romans used aniseed-spiced cakes to aid digestion after heavy meals. The herbalist, John Gerard wrote in 1597 ‘The Seed wasteth and consumeth winde, and is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly.’ Simply translated this means it’s ideal for reducing flatulence.

In India, a pinch of aniseed is often eaten after meals to soothe the stomach and aid the digestive fire.

Uses

It is used for both medicinal purposes and as a spice in cooking. The oil  has a strong licorice flavour and is found in artificial licorice candies, cough lozenges, and syrups.

When mixed with wine it produces the liqueur anisette such as Pernod and is found in raki, a Turkish alcoholic drink, and ouzo, a Greek spirit.

  • Medicinally it is used to promote digestion and to increase urine flow.
  • Aniseed is used in Europe to aid cancer treatment.
  • In Mexico, Turkey, and China, it is used as a carminative (relieves intestinal gas) and galactagogue (stimulates breast milk production). 
  • Other countries use it to induce abortion and to treat respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, bronchitis, and cough.
  • In combination with other herbs, anise has been used to treat head lice infestation.

Regulations

Anise is recognized  as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Revised 13/05/17

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Yogurt Builds Better Bones

  • Consuming yoghurt appears to reduce your risk of Osteoporosis especially in older men and women.

A study in Ireland has found that older men and women consuming yoghurt have a better bone mineral density (BMD) and a reduced risk of osteoporosis. The actual figures from the research show some statistical significance. In women, the BMD increases between 3.0 and 3.9 %. In men, the biomarker for breakdown of bone was 9.5% lower. All these improvements are linked to consumption of more yoghurt with indicators of reduced bone turnover.

The study was conducted by St James’s Hospital and Trinity College in Dublin along with collaborators in Nutrition at Ulster University. This study was a very large observational assessment of 1,057 women and 763 men on dairy intake and the measurement of both bone and frailty.

“Yoghurt is a rich source of different bone promoting nutrients and thus our findings in some ways are not surprising,” claimed Eamon Laird from Trinity College, Dublin in Ireland.

Osteoporosis is one of the most severe chronic conditions of the elderly because loss of calcium and bone mineral density leads to a reduction in bone strength leading to a preponderance of fractures and raised morbidity. Consumption of dairy products with high levels of minerals such as calcium and magnesium have long been associated good bone health (Heaney, 2009) and recently the link to yogurt consumption started being made (Sahni et al., 2013).

The study, actually the largest of its kind looked at a number of other factors of bone health including daily intakes of other dairy products, meat, fish, physical exercise, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, smoking and alcohol and other traditional risk factors.

Participants yogurt consumption was obtained from questionnaires. The categories for feeding were no yoghurt at all, 2 or 3 times a week or more than one serving a day.

When all these factors were considered and adjusted for every unit increase in yogurt intake there was a 31% lower risk of osteopenia and a 39% lower risk of osteoporosis for women. The effect for men was even more dramatic with a 52% lower risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin D supplementation is highly beneficial too as identified in the research.

“The data suggest that improving yogurt intakes could be a strategy for maintaining bone health but it needs verification through future research as it is observational,” according to the lead researcher.

Reference

Heaney, R.P. (2009) Dairy and bone health. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 28(Sup 1) pp. 82–90

Laird, E., Molloy, A.M., McNulty, H. et al.(2017) Osteoporos. Int.  doi:10.1007/s00198-017-4049-5

Sahni, S., Tucker, K.L., Kiel, D.P., Quach, L., Casey, V.A., Hannan, M.T. (2013) Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch. Osteoporos. 8(1–2) pp. 1–9

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When Hay Fever Ruins Your Day !

If you have hay fever then Spring and early Summer (May-July) is often a miserable time with red, watering and itchy eyes, a runny nose and continuous sneezing. The phenomenon is an allergic reaction to  various pollens from trees and plants generally, weed seeds and even wind blown chaff. Medically, it is known as allergic rhinitis and is the body’s response to antigens such as pollens by releasing histamine. It is histamine which stimulates both inflammation and irritation of the membranes in the lining of the eyes, nose and throat.

Ant-histamines are the usual method of treatment but there are alternatives which include Chamomile and Eyebright. When using chamomile, it is easy to soak a couple of cotton wool pads with a cooled amount of chamomile which is placed on the eyelid for 10 minutes to soothe sore and itchy eyes. Likewise, eyebright can be applied about three times a day where it works as an anti-inflammatory.

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Drinking Vinegars ?

 

Vinegar is enjoyed all over the world, as a condiment or even as a beverage. It is especially popular in China, where it has enjoyed a long history and high reputation in that country. It plays an important role in daily life due to its remarkable nutritional and therapeutic attributes. These relate to its:-

  • antioxidant and antibacterial properties (Dávalos et al., 2005; Verzelloni et al., 2007; Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008),
  • reducing blood pressure (Honsho et al., 2005; Tanaka et al., 2009),
  • reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and glycemic index (Leeman et al., 2005; Johnston and Gaas, 2006; Kondo et al., 2009),
  • food appetizer and condiment (Darzi et al., 2010),
  • anti-inflammatory activity (O’Keefe et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2011).

The key phytochemicals are mainly organic acids, amino acids, and phenolic compounds.

Chinese-style brewed vinegars, which contain more amino acids and organic acids than other kinds of vinegars, are traditionally brewed mainly from rice or sorghum fermentation seeding with Acetobacter and Gluconobacter (Uysal et al., 2013). The flavour is mainly generated from the grain fermentation process (Lin, 2005; Zho et al., 2008). Vinegar not only contributes to the flavour, but also improves the taste of food, especially the umami taste (Tachdjian et al., 2014).

References

Dávalos, A., Bartolomé, B., Gómez-Cordovés, C. (2005) Antioxidant properties of commercial grape juices and vinegars. Food Chem. 93 pp. 325–30

Honsho, S., Sugiyama, A., Takahara, A., Satoh, Y., Nakamura, Y., Hashimoto, K. (2005) A red wine vinegar beverage can inhibit the renin–angiotensin system: experimental evidence in vivo. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28 pp. 1208–10

Johnston, C.S., Gaas, C.A. (2006) Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect. MedGenMed 8 pp. 61–61

Kondo, T., Kishi, M., Fushimi, T., Ugajin, S., Kaga, T. (2009) Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73 pp. 1837–43.

Lee, C.S., Yi, E.H., Kim, H.R., Huh, S.R., Sung, S.H., Chung, M.H., Ye, S.K. (2011) Anti-dermatitis effects of oak wood vinegar on the DNCB-induced contact hypersensitivity via STAT3 suppression. J. Ethnopharmacol. 135 pp. 747–53

Leeman, M., Östman, E., Björck, I. (2005) Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59 pp. 1266–71

Lin, Z.S. (2005) Multi-strain fermentation—the important way to improve the quality and flavor of soy sauce and vinegar. China Brewing 6 pp. 1–5

O’Keefe, J.H., Gheewala, N.M., O’Keefe, J.O. (2008) Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51 pp. 249–55.

Sakanaka, S., Ishihara, Y. (2008) Comparison of antioxidant properties of persimmon vinegar and some other commercial vinegars in radical-scavenging assays and on lipid oxidation in tuna homogenates. Food Chem. 107 pp. 739–44

Tachdjian, C., Li, X., Qi, M., Rinnova, M., Servant, G., Zoller, M. (2014) Flavors, flavor modifiers, tastants, taste enhancers, umami or sweet tastants, and/or enhancers and use thereof. U.S. Patent 8895050.

Verzelloni, E., Tagliazucchi, D., Conte, A. (2007) Relationship between the antioxidant properties and the phenolic and flavonoid content in traditional balsamic vinegar. Food Chem. 105 pp. 564–71

Zho, C., Wang, P., Wang, S., Kang, L. (2008) Improvement of flavor and color of vinegar produced by submerged fermentation. China Brewing 19 pp. 59–61

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Probiotics And Their Benefits

Probiotics are a valuable nutritional source but are controversial because establishing a medically viable claim for them has proved extremely difficult. Probiotics are globally important and found in a wide variety of fermented foods and are also added to functional foods. They have nutritional, protective, and medical benefits as well as their original property of preserving foods.

Consuming probiotic bacteria is associated with improved immunity and better healthy guts because they replenish natural biota in the intestines (Rafter, 2003; Hemarajata and Versalovic, 2013). A recent study looked at their use in reducing the debilitating effects of hayfever.

The mostly widely studied pro biotic bacteria are the Lactobacillus or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Most studied are Lactobacillus casei and L. acidophilus. These bacteria in particular are claimed to reduce the reactions that cause the formation of carcinogens from various pro-carcinogens. It is thought they modulate enzyme activity including peroxidases and free-radical formation implicated in the generation of these unpleasant chemicals.

The properties of LAB include activities as antioxidants and antibacterials, along with cancer and diabetes reduction. A host of papers address various aspects of these activities and are worth perusal:-

Antioxidants – (Das & Goyal, 2015)

Diabetes reduction – (Yadav et al., 2007).

Anti-tumour – (Shin et al., 1998; Khan et al., 2016).

One of the strongest research areas is their role in reinforcing the body’s immunity and protection against various diseases (Ranjan et al., 2014; Montijo-Prieto et al., 2015).

Probiotics are usually supplied in various forms such as capsules (vegetarian cellulose is preferred) and tablets. Food is one of the best delivery methods for probiotics or its products in active form (Rafter 2003).

References

Das, D., Goyal, A. (2015) Antioxidant activity and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 isolated from Marcha of Sikkim. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 61(1) pp. 263–8

De Montijo-Prieto, S., Moreno, E., Bergillos-Meca, , Lasserrot, A., Ruiz-López, M.D., Ruiz-Bravo, A., Jiménez-Valera, M.A. (2015) Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from kefir protects against intestinal infection with Yersinia enterocolitica O9 and modulates immunity in mice. Res. Microbiol. 166(8) pp. 626–32.

Hemarajata, P., Versalovic, J. (2013) Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Therap. Adv. Gastroenterol. 6(1) pp. 39–51

Khan, I., Paul, S., Jakhar, R., Bhardwaj, M., Han, J., Kang, S.C. (2016) Novel quercetin derivative TEF induces ER stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Biomed. Pharmacother. 84 pp. 789–99.

Rafter, J. (2003) Probiotics and colon cancer. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 17(5) pp. 849–59

Shin, K., Chae, O., Park, I., Hong, S., Choe, T. (1998) Antitumor effects of mice fed with cell lysate of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from Kimchi. Korean Biotechnol Bioeng 13 pp. 357–63

Yadav, H., Jain, S., Sinha, P.R. (2007) Antidiabetic effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in high fructose fed rats. Nutrition 23(1) pp. 62–8.

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Chilean Soapbark Tree (Quillaja saponaria)

The aqueous extract of the Chilean soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina) is made up of many bioactive triterpenoid saponins (Guo and Kenne, 2000). It has U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance (21 CFR 172.510) as a natural flavouring substance and is used in food mainly as a foaming agent and in beverages as an emulsifier (Chino and Wako 1992; Murakami and Watanabe 1988a, 1988b; Naknukool et al., 2011).

In addition to Chile, this soapbark tree is native to China and many other South American countries including Bolivia and Peru. This quillaja extract is also authorised by the European Union for use in water-based nonalcoholic drinks under the code, E999 (CAS number: 68990-67-0) (Tam and Roner, 2011). Additionally, in Japan, it is used as an emulsifier and foaming agent and for application in cosmetics (FAO, 2004). In order to avoid deforestation, and to have a sustainable, relatively inexpensive source of the food-additive, the aqueous extracts are obtained from the bark of the tree or wood of the branches (Tam and Roner, 2011; FAO, 2004).

The aqueous extract of Quillaja (QE) is stable over a wide pH range, that is pH 2 to 11 (Roner et al., 2007). QE is known to have anti-viral activity against vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2), reovirus and rhesus rotavirus (RRV) (both in vitro and in vivo) (Roner et al., 2007, 2010).

References

Chino, Y., Wako, M. (1992) Manufacture of transparent emulsions for foods and beverages. US Patent 04 51:83.

Guo, S., Kenne, L. (2000) Structural studies of triterpenoid saponins with new acyl components from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Phytochemistry 55 pp.41928

Naknukool, S., Horinouchi, I., Hatta, H. (2011) Stimulating macrophage activity in mice and humans by oral administration of Quillaja saponin. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 75 pp. 188993

Murakami, F., Watanabe, T. (1988a) Manufacture of stabilized cream using Quillaja saponin. US Patent 63 (1988):735

Murakami, F., Watanabe, T. (1988b) Production of emulsified fat and oil-containing soy sauce. US Patent 63:23371.

Roner, M.R., Sprayberry, J., Spinks, M., Dhanji, S. (2007) Antiviral activity obtained from aqueous extracts of the Chilean soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina). J. Gen. Virol. 88 pp. 275–285

Roner, M.R., Tam, K.I., Kiesling-Barrager, M. (2010) Prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponaria Molina. Future Med Chem 2 pp. 108397.

Tam, K.I., Roner, M.R. (2011) Characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Antiviral Res. 90 pp. 23141.

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